This thesis is an investigation of the affects illicit behaviors have on player salaries in the National Football League (NFL). Illicit behaviors include criminal arrests and convictions, and acts fine-able by the NFL. Previous studies in this area have been limited and with the exception of a few have focused on salary determinants which did not include behavior. Further extensive research has been conducted on the affect criminal behavior has on income and entry into the American labor market. An Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model is used to explore different offensive positions and the role illicit behaviors play in salary determination. The regression t-values show varying results for different positions based on varying illicit acts. Despite the few instances where salary is affected at better than the 10% level, the evidence points to limited economic repercussions for players who commit illicit acts.
As the amount of money being circulated in the United States stock market increases, investors are presented with more opportunity to make a profit. Previous studies contradict one another on whether or not pattern recognition can yield above-average risk-adjusted returns in the market. The current study examines whether or not the Stock Broker's Almanac list of hot months can be implemented to identify a consistent pattern in the stock market. The numerical values collected for the stocks were tested and analyzed to determine whether the use of hot months is a profitable investment strategy in the stock market. Results indicate that seasonal investing may in fact be a successful strategy if properly applied to the United States stock market.
The thesis examines innovation in the mobile application space. Innovation is widely recognized as one of the most important drivers of economic growth and the past decade has been one breathtaking revolution and innovation. Innovation literature has been painstakingly developers over the past fifty years through the study of innovations themselves, the processes through which innovation occurs, and the organizations that most successfully innovate. This thesis examines innovation theory and attempts to apply it to the mobile space to discover what course innovation takes.
Professional golfers on the PGA Tour must face countless risk and effort choices throughout any given tournament. The concern of the present study is how players alter their risk behaviors when faced with different positions relative to certain salient reference points within a tournament—primarily the cut and the win. study explores players' risk and effort behaviors in the context of a behavioral economics concept called loss aversion. Loss aversion says that people put more weight on losses than on gains. Thus, the present study expects professional golfers behind the cut and the win to exert more effort and risk. Players ahead of the cut or in the lead are expected to play it safe. Only one known previous study has explored loss aversion in professional golf. The results in the present study support the hypothesis and carry various implications for the PGA Tour, behavioral economics, and numerous other contexts outside of sports.
This thesis seeks to investigate the possibilities of joint liability lending in the United States and if there is the necessary social capital to support a successful group lending structure. Since joint liability lending has enjoyed great success in foreign countries, I thought it was important to look into the positive effect that joint liability lending could have on the unbanked population in the U.S. I developed a questionnaire regarding joint liability lending's potential in the United States and sent it to six of the most highly regarded microfinance institutions in the U.S. Though I anticipated that joint liability lending would be successful in the United States, as it was abroad, the input I received from the microfinance institutions in my sample indicated that the U.S. would not be able to support joint liability lending. These institutions saw lack of social capital as the main reason that group lending would not be successful in the United States.
This paper uses a large database from MIX market, the leading provider of microfinance data across the world, to analyze determinants of microfinance institutions' (MFI's) success. Specifically, the study focuses on the effects that innovative lending procedures have on client repayment rates. Findings suggest that lending to women and to groups both positively increase clients' repayment rates. Institutional characteristics of MFI's are also studied; increases in efficiency and self sufficiency result in decreases in default rates.
This thesis examines micronutrient interventions' role in gender-focused development. It reviews recent micronutrient literature to provide background information on intervention, both through a review of supplementation programs (using the example of vitamin A) and through a review of fortification programs (using the example of iodine). After establishing that micronutrient interventions are a cost-effective approach to development, this thesis asks the question of whether these types of interventions can be used for gender-focused development. Two development agendas are used to make this analysis: lowering fertility rates in the developing world and combating women's discrimination at the household level. Building on prior development research, the case is made that micronutrients are one of the most cost-effective ways of bolstering these agendas.
The National Hockey League (NHL) has had troubles in the past with turning a profit. However, recently the NHL has improved revenues since the lockout season of 2004- 2005. Even though the league as a whole is doing better, about half the teams each year still have negative revenues. As many different sport studies have shown in the past, that winning teams are able to draw more fans, and thus, more revenue as well. The sole purpose of this study is to find out what helps a team win hockey games, which creates higher attendance, and ultimately, higher revenue. This study accomplishes this by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) regression along with data from the 2006-2009 seasons to discover the factors that contribute to a NHL team's success. One major finding of this study is that Major Penalties, or more specifically fighting, no longer has a significant impact on helping a team win. By discovering the factors that help a team win, each team can go after the optimal players that will contribute most to winning games.
The music industry has seen many new forms of technology that have helped shape it to become the multi-billon dollar industry it has become today. The Internet is currently changing how artists are distributing their music as well as how consumers are receiving it. The ease of which an artist can distribute their music across the country without the help of a record label has lead to a new question as to whether or not a record contract is still necessary for an artist to succeed in the industry. This study will look at groups from the Front Range of Colorado at different stages in their musical careers to see exactly how they are using the Internet to distribute their music and to find out if any have achieved any level of financial success doing so.
This empirical study examines the impact of proximity to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) toxic release inventory (TRI) sites on the values of residential properties in Colorado Springs in the year 2000. Data from Census Tracts is examined using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a least squares regression model. The findings indicate that, when controlling for relevant structural and socioeconomic variables, proximity to TRI pollutants are insignificant determinants of residential property values
The value and importance of diversity in one's portfolio has long been postulated, but it was Harry M. Markowitz who proposed the first mathematical model that would allow investors to systematically compute the optimal allocation of assets based on individual preferences (the investor's utility function), covariance, variance, and expected value of returns. Adequate diversification can mitigate risk substantially while potentially enhancing returns. Markowitz provided investors with the tools to optimally diversify their investments.
The modern age of commerce features extensive corporate competition and innovative marketing strategies. It has increasingly become necessary for brands to utilize multisensory marketing and branding strategies that create and maintain strong sensory connections with consumers. This study addresses how multisensory marketing techniques influence the consumer mindset and behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. The investigation includes an in depth summary of the existing theoretical foundations of multisensory marketing and established literature on the subject of sensory branding strategy and design. The exploration answers a fundamental question: do sensory branding techniques and environmental stimuli have a measurable effect upon the consumer? Additionally, the text discusses the problem: how can sensory branding strategies be designed and utilized to effectively and positively influence consumer behavior?
Colorado is a large energy producing state. Compared to other energy producing states, Colorado's current severance tax policies and rates are very lenient towards energy companies. There have been proposals to change these rates and policies but these proposals have been highly contested. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate Colorado's current policies and determine whether new rates and restructuring of the taxes would benefit the state of Colorado and its citizens. This paper uses past data and tax collections to create hypothetical situations for the future of Colorado's severance taxes. By studying the years of 1981-2008 a long range of effects of the potential policy change are examined. Using extraction models, rate changes are determined to have a small effect on the extraction paths and prices for crude oil. Calculations done to determine the effect of an endowment on Colorado's tax payout find a much more stable, but not necessarily larger payout.
Social network marketing is an emerging channel of marketing. It could play a large role with small businesses in their marketing strategies. This thesis looks at the factors that affect the implementation of social network marketing for small businesses. Using models and theories surrounding other forms of direct marketing, this thesis fulfills a role in a marketing media with very little research. Relying on eight interviews with a variety of small business owners in Colorado, this thesis analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of social network marketing.
This thesis estimates the current voting power of each of the voting blocs in the Electoral College. It concludes that the current distribution of power, while significantly improved from the last similar published paper, is still significantly unfair in terms of the one man one vote principle. Since the Electoral College elects the highest authority in the United States, the President, the election should reflect the principle of one man-one vote. An alternative to the Electoral College is presented, based on L.S. Penrose's conclusions on weighted voting, that comes close to solving the issue of one man-one vote while retaining some of the traditions of the Electoral College.
In today's economy, the failure rates of new companies are astronomical. In 2007 there were about twenty-eight thousand businesses that closed. In 2008, about forty-two thousand closed, and that number only continues to grow. With only twenty-nine percent of new businesses start ups succeeding beyond the first ten years, there is little question that the business world is in the midst of a major transition. The economic theorist and bestselling author, Daniel Pink, has developed a six-part theory to cope with this change. His theory contains six essential aptitudes, which will allow one to excel during this transformational time. Pink describes this movement as a transition from the Information Age, which values logical and linear thinking, to the Conceptual Age, which values inventive, empathetic, and big-picture thinking. This study is an empirical investigation of the simultaneous presence of the six essential aptitudes in ten entrepreneurs, five in product-based industries and five in service-based industries. The results suggest that the transition from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age although well underway, is not yet complete.
Live popular music is an area of growing importance. With the proliferation of piracy and online music sources, revenue streams for musicians are shrinking in the 21st Century and live performance is becoming one of the last areas for artists to make a living. This study investigates the determining factors in the success or failure of live popular music events by measuring ticket sales. Using a case study of a venue in Santa Cruz, CA, variables describing event context and expected quality of performance are regressed against final box office sales to uncover any existent relationships. Artist exposure, day of the week, and age restrictions are all found to significantly impact final ticket demand for live music events.
The commercial fishing industry in British Columbia is currently facing a downward trend in production. This paper investigates the factors that are causing this movement, specifically looking at the effects of aquaculture on the industry. This up and coming branch of fish production has seen great economic gains while the commercial fishing sector has been steadily declining. The hypothesis is that aquaculture is having immense adverse effects on the industry and while production in this sector continues to grow, it is causing the commercial sector to flounder. A model is used to identify the factors affecting commercial fishing productivity and to examine if aquaculture is the leading contributor to the recent trend. Data was collected for 28 years examining statistics that may be affecting the industry. Results from the regression models were limited and a clear understanding of the causes could not be reached.
As the economy is in a decline, fewer people are willing to pay for luxuries such as vacations. Thus, the ski resort industry is suffering. This thesis reveals an opportunity m the growth of free skiing and a demand for more difficult terrain. In this paper, data is collected from nearly all Colorado ski resorts to form a regression model explaining resort success. Regression analysis is conducted to discover what aspects of a ski resort contribute to success. Primarily, skier visits from the 2008-2009 ski season are used as the dependent variable in the regression model to measure resort success. Additionally, hedonic pricing theory is applied to test lift ticket price as a dependent variable. The paper finds that resort size, and possibly terrain park features are related to resort success. The hedonic pricing regression finds that bowl skiing, and lack of crowds, increase consumer willingness to pay for expensive lift tickets.
In 2009 the global markets experienced a crash the likes of which had not been seen since the Great Depression. This paper seeks to use principles of behavioral finance to analyze the economic climate generated before, after, and during a "bubble" period. The efficient market model presented by Eugene Fama is unable to explain the phenomenon known as a bubble period. Using traditional and nontraditional stock indicators, this paper will examine the correlation between volume and price in relation to the climate in which bubbles are generated.
This study examines the influences of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on companies' profitability and compares these influences with economic conditions to discuss their significance. It hypothesizes that market power, total assets and synergistic effects are all positively related to profitability, but they are less significant than the economic influences such as economic growth, consumer confidence and producer confidence. Focusing on the largest U.S. mergers and acquisitions during the period from 1998 to 2003, two economic models are designed to test these hypotheses. The first model examines the relationship between M&A influences and profitability. The test results of this model suggest that market power and total assets are both significant to profitability and that synergistic effects are insignificant. The study also finds that increasing market power is 50 times more efficient than increasing total assets in generating profit. The second model examines the relationship between the economic influences and profitability, but the tests results are inconclusive and suggest that economic factors and profitability have non-linear correlations
In the past half-century, an emphasis on work-life balance has emerged as a result of a changing labor force. Researchers have examined a variety of factors to explain how individual perceptions of work-life balance are influenced; some studies focus mainly on micro factors, such as gender or race, while others look to larger-scale elements such as organizational structure or job characteristics. This thesis sought to compare both micro and macro factors to see if work-life balance was primarily a function of demographic, job, or organization characteristics. A total of 269 professional employees at over 100 domestic and international organizations were surveyed, and results were analyzed using three linear regression models. Out of all the factors that were significant in predicting work-life balance in the models observed, only one—having four or more children—was a condition that organizations cannot control for. Interestingly, all of the other factors that proved significant—job autonomy, average hours worked per week, job pressure, and workplace support—are attributes that organizations can influence. Thus, this thesis suggests that organizations have a powerful role in helping their professional employees achieve a comfortable work-life balance.
This study attempts to explain the effect geographical location has on a National Hockey League (NHL) team's revenue. The effect location has will be compared to other determinants of revenue in the NHL. Data sets were collected from the 2006-2007 and the 2007-2008 seasons. Regression results were analyzed from these data sets. This study found that attendance, city population, and win percentage has a positive and significant effect on revenue.
Beginning in the early 1960's, local governments throughout the United States have implemented growth management policies intended to influence the pattern of development and restrict growth. These regulations affect the conditions of community life by increasing property values, shifting demographics, and altering the delivery of public services. This thesis examines these effects through case studies of the City of Boulder, the City of Berkeley, and the City of Fort Collins, using data primarily from the US Census Bureau. It is hypothesized that the city with the most growth management policies will experience these effects to a greater magnitude. This was found to be partly true; there are other overriding factors that contribute to these changes more so than the presence or absence of growth management policies.
This thesis examines the effects of Team Leadership on a theatrical production. Following the model of Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, an orchestra that has no conductor, this thesis examines the possibility of a theatrical production without the central leadership figure of the director. To study these effects, actors were brought in and asked to be a part of a production wherein they would perform their own roles and also serve as co-directors. This thesis suggests that the Team Leadership Model can be effective if certain pre-conditions are satisfied: actors auditioned based on their ability to work together as a team, a clear structure and outline of responsibilities for all participants, and a reasonable amount of time to allow the team to work together effectively. This thesis found that the Team Leadership Model can be an effective leadership model for a theatrical production, but these pre-conditions must be satisfied.