Palestinian uses of violent and nonviolent tactics are varied and diverse. Using Chenoweth and Stephan's quantitative and qualitative work on nonviolent versus violent movements, I show that when the Palestinians utilized nonviolent means against the Israeli occupation during the first intifada they was reasonably successful in gaining Israeli concessions. This is contrasted with the use of violent means during the second intifada, which caused harsh repression and sanctions from the Israelis. I conclude that if Palestinians desire to once again rise up against the occupation, they should do so through nonviolent means so as to have a higher probability of success.
This historical essay is meant not only to illustrate the events of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, but also to examine how the memory of the Riot shaped Tulsa’s history and continues to influence the community today. This paper investigates the years leading up to the Riot, the potential causes and what ignited the violence of the Riot, and the years following the event. The conclusion this essays draws is that the Tulsa Race Riot completely shaped the rest of the city of Tulsa’s history, through traumatic events such as the building of Interstate-244 directly through the heart of the black community, and the desegregation of Tulsa Public Schools. In an effort to keep the event as quiet as possible, both out of fear on the African-American side and a desire to keep crimes hidden on the white side, both the white and black communities shaped their own memories of the Riot which are still prevalent today. The African-American narrative has become one of perseverance and courage to overcome adversity, and the white narrative has been overshadowed by attempts to keep the Riot out of discussions and history books. Through interviews with native Tulsans and extensive off and on-site research, “Divided by the Tracks: Memory of the Tulsa Race Riot” delves into the questions of memory, how memories, particularly of traumatic events, are formed, and how these memories are able to shape communities even almost one hundred years after an event.
A history senior essay looking at Mississippi in the summer of 1964, also known as Freedom Summer, and the projects that took place during the season. The successes and failures of the summer are discussed, as well as key people within the movement.
An exploration of the early years of Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, highlighting some key unique characteristics of his transformation via spiritual conversion in the sixteenth century.
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s public statements denying the Holocaust and challenging Israel shocked the Western world. However, Ahmadinejad’s statements had precedents in the Middle East. Political leaders in Israel and Palestine have politicized the Holocaust since it occurred. Israeli leaders have used the memory of the Holocaust to establish international support for the Israeli state, while Palestinian leaders have challenged Israeli narratives to establish support for the Palestinian cause. In championing the Palestinian cause by questioning established narratives of the Holocaust, Ahmadinejad, too, sought to increase political support and fulfill political goals. The history of the Holocaust has been less important in Middle Eastern discourse than the political ends to which it has been applied.
An exploration of the way families influenced educational, community, and organized labor movements in Colorado's mining towns. The essay looks at three families in Cripple Creek, Creede, and Leadville, Colorado and uses their experiences to ground the narrative.
Shortly after becoming President of the United States in 2009, Barack Obama was asked by a reporter in Strasbourg, France whether or not he adhered to a philosophy of American exceptionalism. The reporter intended to mean whether Obama believed the United States is uniquely qualified to lead the world. The President began his response with the following: “I believe in American exceptionalism, just as I suspect that the Brits believe in British exceptionalism and the Greeks believe in Greek exceptionalism.” A year later, Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney wrote a book where he alleges this response proves President Obama “doesn't believe [American exceptionalism] at all” and criticized him for that stance. Furthermore, President Obama's response was brought up again during the 2012 election when Governor Romney challenged him for the Presidency. Even though the quote above is only the beginning of his entire reply, the entire exchange highlights the role American exceptionalism still plays in the political sphere. My essay emphasizes three important questions: the definition of American exceptionalism, its previous and current role in politics, and assessments of its validity from both advocates and critics.