Martha Gellhorn (1908-1998), an American writer and journalist, and María Teresa León (1903-1988), a Spanish writer and activist, happen to be two women writing during the Spanish Civil War. They also happen to be in relationships with the renowned authors: Ernest Hemingway and Rafael Alberti. However, the reason for comparison is not founded in their gender nor their relationships with their famous literary husbands. The point of comparison that is intriguing lies in the fact that they are both intellectuals in metaphorical exile who bring double perspective to their writing, according to the theories of Edward Said, a Palestinian-American theorist. Through analyzing how León and Gellhorn bring their double perspectives to their writings, the paper will show how because their metaphorical exiles are different, the way in which they deliver their political messages in their writings varies.
In modern literary theory and philosophy, the concept of place, despite its permeating influence in many if not all aspects of existence, has been far too overlooked. In my thesis, I set out to redefine place in a way that encompasses this importance. I chose to ground my exploration in literature—specifically “Eveline” in James Joyce’s Dubliners, The Castle by Franz Kafka, and “Las ruinas circulares” in Jorge Luis Borges’ Ficciones—in order to then move outside of the texts to situate these works in their respective authorial realities and consider the influence of external, real place on intratextual place. To examine the extent of the relevance of each author’s own presence of place, I consider theories regarding the origin of art with the help of Aristotle’s Poetics, literary scholars who have focused on these authors, and theorists who have focused on the role of reality in fiction. Finally, with the help of Martin Heidegger’s Poetry, Language, Thought and my own analysis, I argue that there is not such a stark distinction between literature and reality, that art is neither merely imitation nor creation, author neither imitator nor creator, and in the end, I expand upon the important relationship between place, art, and being in order to formulate a new definition of place in a literary and aesthetic context.
Le Cœur de Pic, a collection of thirty-two French Surrealist children's poems accompanied by twenty illustrations by Claude Cahun, is an irreplaceable artifact of Surrealist object experimentation in the late 1930's. Together, its phonetic- and optical-objects form the unique and specific "cross-border" function of the surreal book-object, which creates a hybrid and open-ended narrative. My goal in translating this text is to make a new textual object that is functionally equivalent to the surreal book-object of the 1930's, so that contemporary readers may access the mischievious and melancholic narrative contained therein. I have employed intermedial translation to create The Heart of Pic because Le Cœur de Pic is a multimodal text, having as much to do with verbal as it does visual elements. Intermedial translation is a new conversation in the field of translation studies in contemporary comparative literature. My hope is that this project will spark contribute to that conversation as well as the revolution of translation as we now know it.