The best interests of companies are served by ensuring that employees are satisfied in their jobs. This thesis examines the relationship between personality and job satisfaction, and how motivation affects that model. Gender is also a component to this study, which observes the impact gender has on personality. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from companies operating across industries, and used for analysis. This study strives to reveal strategies on how best to motivate employees and increase levels of job satisfaction in the workplace.
While many previous economic studies focus on determining the role various socio-economic factors on men’s international soccer performance, very few studies performed on women’s soccer exist. A gross discrepancy between the top ranked men’s and women’s international soccer teams compels this study, which includes measures of gender equality as a hypothesized deterministic factor for women’s international soccer rankings. The hypothesis here suggests that where women are afforded more opportunities in society, they will experience success in other realms of life as well. An OLS regression using FIFA/Coca Cola women’s rankings as the dependent variable yielded that while the utilized proxies of gender equality are not related to soccer performance, the average IQ of a country and the number of casual soccer players a country claims serve as highly predictive factors when determining which countries will field successful women’s international soccer teams. Whether or not a country has a communist government and the number of years a country’s team has been affiliated with FIFA were also found to have significant value when predicting the FIFA rankings.
As society has progressed over time, we have developed extensive unsustainable consumption habits, and we will have to deal with the future consequences of those actions. Problems, like climate change, have developed into intricate issues that will require innovative marketing and promotion methods, as they will involve the alteration of solidified social patterns and constructs. Through analyzing products like residential renewable energy, we can better understand how sustainable and responsible behavior can be fostered from the individual level to a national scale. That is why this study asks what factors explain homeowners’ decision to invest in renewable energy? Through exploring past research, understanding current markets, and surveying potential and current renewable energy user, this study attempts to identify the most prominent barriers and effective promoters of residential renewable energy.
This thesis provides a quantitative exploration of mortgage default sensitivity to depreciating home prices and attempts to isolate mortgage market metrics that may contribute to undue mortgage market instability. By analyzing a set of time series data from 1987 through 2011 of the U.S. housing and mortgage markets, this thesis constructs default-price elasticities and finds that default responsiveness was not disproportional during the 2007 subprime crisis. Aggregate LTV ratios are found to not correlate strongly with default responsiveness but do exhibit a correlation with other measures of mortgage market instability.
This study shows how social capital affects the outreach and operational self-sufficiency of microfinance institutions (MFIs) around the world. Borrowing from the literature, this thesis defines social capital as those features of human relationships—specifically social networks, social norms, and trustworthiness—which help a community to achieve economic development. This research uses quantitative data from the Microfinance Information Exchange and the World Values Survey as well as qualitative data collected during a ten-day case study with the Adelante Foundation in La Ceiba, Honduras. The regression model shows which aspects of social capital have the greatest influence on MFI performance, accounts for explanatory variables, and tests for an endogenous peer effect between MFIs. Results show that social capital—particularly friend networks and trust—has a direct influence on MFI performance, suggest that there is a tradeoff between outreach and sustainability, and proves that there is an endogenous peer effect between MFIs.
Traditionally, defensemen in the National Hockey League (NHL) have been paid unevenly. Statistics measuring production for an NHL defensemen were applied to help determine a salary. Since the lockout of the 2004-05 season in the NHL, the importance of determining salaries for defensemen became important because of the introduction of the salary cap. The purpose of this study was to analyze this salary disparity by cross-referencing career numbers of 235 NHL defensemen with their salaries, using both an Ordinary Least Squares regression and a Quantile regression to estimate earnings. Data was collected from the 2009-10 season, with salaries taken from 2010-11 season. The regression results showed that 14 independent variables were found to be significant in different quantiles and in the OLS regression. The estimation results suggest that the conditional expectation model used in previous studies misses some of the subtleties of the earnings determination process in the NHL.
Personality undoubtedly plays a role in determining educational attainment and labor market outcomes. We investigate the role of self-esteem in determining wages directly and indirectly via education. We use data from the 1979 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate a three equation simultaneous equation model that treats self-esteem, educational attainment, and real wages as endogenous. We find that, while self-esteem has a positive and significant impact on wages indirectly via education, it does not significantly affect wages directly once we control for locus of control. We find that that the indirect effect of self-esteem comprises upwards of 80 percent of the total effect of self-esteem on wages after 1980. Additionally, we find that wages and education both affect self-esteem. We discuss gender differences in the relationships between wages, education, and self-esteem and conclude that females experience a higher rate of return on education than males, and self-esteem is a stronger determinant of educational attainment for males than females.
The production of natural gas from unconventional shale reservoirs is a timely issue that should be given careful consideration. The application of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing procedures raise many concerns over environmental protection and safety. Over the past five years, drilling of the Marcellus shale, found in the northeastern United States, has increased at an exponential rate at which the full impact of negative externalities may not be realizable. This paper reviews the technical aspects involved in deep shale natural gas production including explanations of the geological background and horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Also discussed are concerns for water resources and opportunity for environmental hazards. Applying theories of pollution control this paper considers whether the public as well as government regulatory agencies are effectively managing production as this point in time.
Many companies are floundering in the wake of the rise of social media. With social networks such as Facebook and Twitter experiencing exponential growth, marketers are struggling to understand a new paradigm of marketing communications. This paper synthesizes research from consumer choice theory, cognitive psychology, and marketing in pursuit of a more comprehensive understanding of social media best practices. Particular attention is paid to how customers create their identities in the context of consumption, and the role of authenticity in corporate-customer relationships.
Existing literature indicates an undeniable link between socioeconomic status and adult obesity prevalence across the United States; the youth obesity epidemic is no exception to this trend. This study addresses potential demographic, socioeconomic and built environmental factors that may explain the mechanisms behind the observed inequalities in childhood and adolescent obesity. Using youth survey data from the western United States and various econometric techniques, the theory of household production of health is applied to help identify avenues through which these variables may impact children’s weight status. The results from this study support the consensus drawn from previous studies: food consumption and physical activity decisions are likely determined by a variety of household economic constraints which limit resources or access to resources necessary for the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle.
Operating a college is expensive, and the cost of attendance is rising higher every year, easily surpassing inflation. What if part of the cause of this rising cost is poor “investment” by admissions officers. Are they admitting people that they a priori know will not give back to the college after graduation? Using data provided by the advancement and admissions departments of Colorado College, this paper aims to identify whether students can be grouped into asset classes based on inherent characteristics, and whether those assets behave like stocks in the stock market (i.e. is there a risk-return relationship present). To do this, students from the past 40 years have been grouped according to their shared characteristics (race, sex, etc.). Each group has a mean expected per year donation, and a variance measurement from that mean. These risk and return values are plotted and a regression line is fitted to the groups.
The pattern of stagnating growth and underdevelopment remains an all too common phenomenon for countries with a colonial past, regardless of efforts by developmental economists and international organizations. In order to increase our understanding of what factors lead to this pattern, this study investigates the link between colonization and growth by examining trade characteristics of prior colonies. Using data from the World Bank, the IMF and the OECD, this study utilizes simultaneous equation modeling to determine how trade patterns can provide the link between colonization and the current state of underdevelopment in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. This leads to a more refined understanding of why economic development fails to occur even in a period of booming international trade and globalization. Probing into the trade patterns of these nations, this paper answers the following question: Does colonial identity impact trade and growth patterns today? This study finds that history plays a role in determining how countries trade and grow, but the results are varied depending on the analysis utilized. Furthermore, there is a link between the types of goods traded and the growth of a nation, but trade in primary products does not necessarily limit a country’s growth potential.
Training programs should be constructed with a focus on changing behavior and attitudes to meet organizational expectations. Organizations must respond to demands for change, realizing that advances in technology are rendering many traditional employee skills obsolete. Training is used to further develop skills and attitudes necessary for all levels of employees. This study provides an analysis of the most effective methods in designing orientation programs for new hires. This includes an examination of how behavioral factors can be influenced during orientation programs in order to maximize productivity and increase employee retention rates. The data used to support these claims are taken from case studies conducted on Colorado College and The Broadmoor. The findings in this study suggest that training programs should incorporate factors that embody organizational socialization and commitment in order to influence behavioral changes in employees, and in result yield increases in productivity and employee retention rates. Well-designed training programs should include a basic understanding of company history, nature of the business, organizational philosophy, mission, and structure, and organizational policies and procedures.
Currently, there is little information around the benefits of marketing, in respect to the fine art profession. Artists are often averse to marketing due to personality type, lack of marketing education, and the sporadic methods to success in the fine art industry. This study examines the factors that help the career of the artist, with an emphasis on marketing. Fine artists are interviewed to gather information qualitatively, and are further analyzed to articulate the contributing factors to success. Overall, the data suggests marketing as a beneficial implementation to the career of the fine artist, along with support and motivation.
The most recent financial crisis has spurred a number of mergers and acquisitions in the financial industry, specifically banks. This study examines the hypothesis that mergers and acquisitions did not produce better performing institutions and industries during the 2006-2008 period. The key theories behind this hypothesis are valuation theory and performance measurement theory. Data were compiled for six banking ratios for 105 firms directly involved in mergers or acquisitions during this period. An empirical test of firm-to-firm performance shows that firms did not benefit from the mergers for the majority of ratios tested. On the other hand, firm to industry performance shows mixed results, with many of the ratios tested resulting to be statistically insignificant. These results reveal the inefficiencies of mergers and acquisitions and support the hypothesis of this study.
The purpose of this paper is to determine which factors will affect consumer purchasing behaviors online. While previous research has been conducted in this field, the present study aims to expand upon those papers and will include factors that have never before been analyzed. The eight determinants this paper focuses on include demographics, culture, employment information, allocation of money, risky behaviors, trust in others, place of residency, and time stress. It is hypothesized that each of these determinants will be significantly related to online purchasing behavior. Data was collected by the General Social Survey (GSS) in the year 2000 and was utilized to perform an Ordinary Least Squares regression. This paper hopes to provide insight that will not only increase the success rate of online retailers but also information that will lead to a more positive online experience for consumers.
Academics, administrators, and development offices devote a great deal of time and energy attempting to increase giving because colleges and universities rely heavily on charitable contributions to operate. In this quest, a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between athletic success and giving; however, these studies have focused almost exclusively on the sports of football and basketball. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of Division I ice hockey success on voluntary contributions to colleges and universities. Looking at ten years of data, the study examines schools with NCAA Division I ice hockey teams. In order to test the relationship, the study uses ordinary least squares regressions and fixed effects models. Total giving, alumni giving, giving to athletics, and giving to academics are all considered. Success is measured by winning percentage, post season play, post season wins, and athletic tradition. Results indicate that giving is sensitive to athletic success, but the effects depend on the type of giving, measure of success, and type of school.
Investors are constantly trying to find edge that will make them more successful than their peers. It is for this reason that analysts aim to correlate all aspects of the financial world to produce this edge. For years, scholars and analysts have struggled to find how if at all, politics affect stock market valuations. If they are able to find statistically significant evidence the market reacts differently to political events such as the incumbent president’s policy bias or congressional majority changes, they can invest accordingly. Common theories point out that Republicans are generally superior to Democrats in regards to the performance of the stock market during their respective terms. Theory also suggests presidents are more likely to perform better in the first and last years of their term. Therefore election timing must be reviewed to realize its implications for an above or below average stock index performance. It is the goal of this paper to test these theories so any hypothesis about partisan politics or election timing can be proven genuine or laid to rest.
Empirical evidence has shown that legalizing physician-assisted suicide could result in real economic benefits. This study will test whether those economic implications have an effect on peoples’ attitudes and opinions toward PAS by means of an OLS regression model measuring the determinants of those attitudes. It takes the previous research on the subject a step further by including two explanatory variables based on an individual’s life experiences in addition to their demographic characteristics. Results indicate that along with some demographic characteristics, peoples’ experience with loved ones who are terminally ill has positive correlation with their favorability toward the legalization of PAS. Furthermore, peoples’ attitudes and opinions toward the legalization of PAS are much more dependent on ethical and personal factors than economics.
Advertising plays a huge role in the society that is present today. Advertising has evolved as society and technology have evolved, catering to what pleases the product’s audience best. In just one lifetime the strategies used within the advertising industry have changed tremendously, one of the biggest changes seen within the past century was the introduction of color into print advertisements. The importance of using color in print advertisements as well as what colors are most effective is explored in this study. This study specifically looks at how large of a role an individuals age, gender, socio-economic status, and geographic affiliation plays in color preferences. A survey was taken by 254 participants from different backgrounds both geographically and socio-economically. The data collected from the survey was then analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of variance was conducted on the quantitative data, as well as t-tests. Coding and categorizing was used to analyze the qualitative data. The aim of this study was to provide practical information about what colors are most effective in advertisements today.
This study investigates the effects of men’s college basketball coach’s abilities on their team’s success. Previous research has been limited, but has shown that at the professional level, the abilities of a coach have very little effect on the outcome of their team’s games. This suggests that the most important aspect of team success, and thus, coaching success comes from having the best players on the court rather than having the best strategy as a team. The present study divides the various aspects of college basketball coaching into three separate categories, recruiting ability, in game coaching ability and the pedigree in which a coach has earned through past experiences. This study uses three separate regression analyses in order to most accurately describe the various phases of a college basketball season: the regular season, the conference tournament and the NCAA tournament. Controlling for a wide variety of variables that affect the outcome of a basketball game, this study finds that when measuring a coach’s success during the regular season, a coach’s pedigree is the most important aspect of his success. However, when measuring a coach’s success in the NCAA tournament, where the top programs in the country are matched against one another, it is a coach’s ability to recruit top level talent that most determines the success of that coach’s team, and in turn that coach himself.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the significant predictors of future success of NCAA college players in the NBA, and to determine whether or not there is a specific variable that separates future great NBA players from mediocre players using college statistics. This study focuses on the transfer of talent measured by the efficiency rating of a player.
This study examines the efficacy of economic sanctions in shortening the length of time dictators stay in power. Using a framework set forth by Ronald Wintrobe, dictators were characterized into four different types, tinpots, tyrants, totalitarians, and timocrats, so that sanction efficacy among different types of dictators could be examined. The study used data of all sanctions between 1914-2007, determining which involved dictators and what type of dictator was involved. Results suggests that political stability in the country prior to sanctions imposition, international cooperation in imposing sanctions, as well as the prior relationship between the two countries all significantly affect the length of time dictators remain in power. An interesting finding is that the United States being the imposing country is not a significant deterrent to dictators remaining in power, while sanctions sent by an international organization are. A main finding is that political variables, such as those mentioned above, rather than the economic costs or effects of sanctions, more significantly impact dictators ability to remain in power. Conclusions reached are that sanctions are most useful against dictators when the country imposing the sanction has a prior relationship with the target country, and that sanctions should focus less on an economic impact the sanctions will create, and more on the political pressure sanctions enforce.
Rising tuition in the United States is causing parents to become increasingly concerned with where their children should attend college. A liberal arts education is considered by many to be one of the best undergraduate educations money can buy. However, much scrutiny has arisen concerning whether more selective liberal arts college graduates receive higher future annual salaries when compared to less selective undergraduate college and university graduates. I hypothesize that liberal arts graduates will receive greater future annual salaries than non-liberal arts private and public college and university graduates. To test my hypothesis, I use data from the 2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, which is a third follow-up of a national sample of students who completed their bachelor degrees at the end of the 1992-1993 academic year.
Alternative energy is a rapidly growing field, and one of the main drivers behind this growth is the investment of venture capital. Because of this recent market expansion, little research has been done analyzing venture capital investment behaviors in specific alternative energy industries. This thesis present an analysis of venture capital investments with regard to industry and type of security invested. A Poisson distribution is used to measure the time in between financing rounds, and a negative binomial distribution is used to measure the change in the sum of equity from round to round.