An analysis of the process of identity formation and Otherization from the perspective of early medieval Christians of the Iberian Peninsula. Examines multicultural interactions between Iberian Christians, Andalusi Muslims, and Sephardic Jews.
This thesis focuses on the racist treatment and internment of Japanese Americans during WWII and how they fought back to gain acceptance in American society through their participation in the military and at colleges and universities.
The American image of the hero underwent a paradigmatic shift in the twentieth century. This thesis examines the traditional model of the hero, why there has been a move away from that model, and the replacement archetypes we currently see today.
To this very day, debate among historians continues concerning the critical points in the relations between Russia and the Byzantine Empire and the truth of four important points in Russian history: (1) Russia’s political origins, (2) the extent of Byzantine influence on Russian society, (3) the impact of the Golden Horde on Russo-Byzantine relations, and (4) the prevalence of the “Third Rome” theory in the rise of Muscovite Russia--how this led to the Western interpretation of Russian expansionism during eighteenth- and nineteenth-century imperialism and twentieth-century communism. Understanding Russia’s Byzantine-derived cultural and religious heritage yields a clearer understanding of Russia’s place in the world today. The focus of this thesis is on the extent of the political, religious, and cultural impact of the Byzantine Empire on Medieval Russia and the rise of Moscow as the “Third Rome.” The advancement of Russian self-identification as the center of Orthodoxy after the Turkish invasion of Constantinople will also be investigated. Different historiographical perspectives ranging from the opinions of Western, Soviet, and Russian historians take into account the original documents of the Byzantine and Russian medieval Orthodox Church, the Russian Chronicles, and the testaments of Russian princes and tsars.
Pinochet gained power in 1973 in a coup that followed a period of rapid democratization that had culminated in Salvador Allende’s socialist democracy. In response to society’s new focus on equality during this period, the Church developed a progressive social doctrine that sided with the oppressed masses who had gained power for the first time. When the military junta took power, the Church suddenly had to choose between its new democratic ideals and its historic Latin American strategy of siding with the group in power. Its indecision resulted in a painfully divided compromise between two clearly opposed sides of the Church hierarchy. The upper echelon of the hierarchy, by remaining generally cooperative with the military regime, ensured institutional survival. The lower echelon of the hierarchy, by opposing the regime, kept the Church relevant to the masses that would someday regain power. The disunity within the Chilean hierarchy allowed for new and necessary flexibility that ensured both the Church’s institutional and popular survival under authoritarian rule. However, it was the careful strategy of Archbishop Silva that maintained the necessary unity that allowed the Church to utilize its internal factionalization to survive both the aggression of the dictatorship and the needs of its congregation, and ultimately maintain a critical degree of unity.
In the Middle Ages, conversion to Christianity was often a political matter, and there was much influence to be gained by bringing conversion to another kingdom. Lithuania, the last pagan kingdom in East Central Europe in the early 1300s, faced a losing battle with the crusading Teutonic Knights, who had gained influence and control over several of Lithuania's neighbors through conversion. Lithuania's choice to convert to Christianity through a union with Poland instead was intended to remove the legitimacy of the Teutonic Knights' crusade without putting Lithuania under the control of a much stronger power. Though the conversion had more to do with political survival than religious feeling, the Polish-Lithuanian Union that followed became a new power in the region and helped shape the history of East Central Europe for the next 300 years.
Water is more than a naturally occurring phenomenon; it is a commons resource that has become endowed with cultural meanings. While oil and energy are Texas’s banner industries, there is no resource with a greater significance for the state’s future than water. An understanding of the institutional framework and an awareness of how issues related to water policy is part of the puzzle of resource development and management. The challenges of water policy and management are best understood on a state-by-state basis. The current management system and statutes that govern water present many problems for future availability and use. The rule of capture is a dangerous force in Texas water management that is contributing to many of the resource allocation problems plaguing the state. The state struggles trying to reconcile political goals and scientific concerns with a complex management structure that is comprised of a blend of state agencies and localized districts. This has resulted in a policy battle between regulatory agencies, the courts, and individual landowners. Historically, the winners in this battle have been those who hold the most power.