This research aims to improve practices in the nonprofit sector by countering the current giving method, weakened by anti-overhead biases in popular evaluation models, with a new impact-first approach. Focused on the outputs nonprofits produce, this approach first incorporates a new evaluation model uniquely geared to illustrate the ability each given nonprofit has to create impact. Second, this alternative model will open the door to a new impact performance variable, measuring the efficiency at which nonprofits produce impact given their capability to do so. As a result, this impact-first approach can more accurately identify nonprofits most efficient at producing impact encouraging stronger resource allocation to these organizations – a better way to give.
The bulk of fertility research—or research surrounding which factors influence women’s decisions to have children—was conducted in the mid-twentieth century, when women joined the labor force at unprecedented rates and drastically altered the nature of the United States economy. Very little research has been conducted since. This study therefore aims to generate a contemporary fertility model in order to determine how the factors influencing women’s fertility decisions have changed since the 1950s, especially considering how women’s rights and the traditional family structure have changed since the 1950s. Using a probit regression model, it is found that a woman’s age, marital status, race, education, employment status, and income all significantly impact her likelihood of having a child. It is also found that, contrary to findings from the mid-twentieth century, extrinsic variables such as spouse’s income, women’s wages relative to men’s, and relative economic aspirations do not impact women’s decisions to have children. The results of this study therefore suggest that the factors influencing women’s fertility decisions have in fact changed since the mid-twentieth century—changes likely attributable to women’s increased independence, both in terms of the economy and the structure of the family.
This paper examines if Benjamin Graham’s 10 stock selection criteria can be used to generate returns that are significantly greater than the returns of the modern U.S. stock market. In order to assess performance, 15 portfolios are generated using certain combinations of Graham’s criteria. Data is selected from all U.S. stock exchanges between the years of 2006 and 2010, and portfolios are held for two-year periods. Ordinary least squares regressions are performed using a risk adjustment model derived from the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The study finds that of the 15 Ben Graham portfolios created, only five significantly outperform the market. The significant portfolios are distributed across different years and combinations of criteria, indicating that no set of criteria performs better than the rest. The results suggest that Graham’s selection criteria no longer yield excess risk-adjusted returns in the current U.S. market. It is worth noting that despite only five portfolios producing significant positive returns, 14 portfolios performed higher than the market on a risk-adjusted basis. This finding demonstrates that perhaps untested combinations of criteria, studied over a larger period of time, could produce contrary results.
This paper analyzes the effects of the 2004 lockout on the current playing style of the National Hockey League (NHL). Using NHL data from before and after the 2004-2005 lockout season, this paper examines the impact a player’s height and weight has on their point share value. Through the use of Newey-West and quantile regression analysis, this paper finds that the league is shifting from heavier, more massive players to smaller and stronger players. The findings from this paper advance the current field of hockey analytics and provide new insights into future NHL player personnel decisions.
This thesis analyzes the impact of college characteristics on the advancement of players into the NFL by examining data from the BIG-10, BIG-12, ACC, and SEC college football programs over the years of 2015-2017. By using an ordinary least squares regression, it is found that recruiting class rank, coach’s salary, average attendance and strength of schedule resulted in having a positive effect on advancing players into the NFL.
There has been a lot of research done in the past to determine the relationship between Corporate Social Performance (CSP), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP). The results of past research have been divided and inconclusive. This paper examines how CSR scores, obtained from CSRHub, interact with stock returns on a quarterly basis. The models in this paper utilize an overall CSR score, and the Fama-French three factor mode (Fama & French 1993), to predict stock returns. Using five regressions, this study finds that there is a negative relationship between CSR and stock returns. While this result is consistent with that of Brammer et al. (2008), it is in opposition to the majority of past research which finds a positive relationship between the two variables.
Wildfires in California are getting larger and more frequent – a trend that is only expected to worsen with time. Previous studies explain that a primary reason for visiting California national parks is for their beautiful vistas. Wildfires release a variety of pollutants, such as ozone and particulate matter, which have detrimental effects on those vistas. As the number of wildfires increases, park visibility worsens. This thesis examines the impact of wildfires on national park attendance, evaluating whether poor park visibility may inspire visitors to cancel their visits to parks closer to fires and instead visit parks farther from wildfires with better visibility. More specifically this thesis asks whether a national park’s proximity to a California wildfire impacts visitation rates. To answer this question, univariate and multivariate regressions using monthly park attendance, wildfire, and pollution data test several hypotheses. Results show that visitors ultimately do not consider nearby fire activity in their decision to visit a national park, and that a park’s proximity to a California forest fire has no substantial effect on attendance levels.
I use the 2016 Survey of Consumer Finance (SCF) from the Federal Reserve and examine the impact of demographic and socioeconomic variables on people’s financial risk willingness, as well as percentage of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. I compare the results of these regressions to infer what variables allow people to be more risk tolerant. The results show that being Black/Hispanic and having financial dependents decreases people’s financial risk tolerance. On the other hand, people in the categories never married, greater income, higher education, positive outlook of the economy for the next five years, and work in the finance industry have greater risk tolerance than their counterparts.
An exploratory study of Detroit’s economic trends with a focus on Real Estate with relationship to crime rates. This paper looks not only at the past but the present and future of Detroit’s success and what the city needs to do in order to ensure that it is a top destination city in America. Their population has been on a steady decline since the deindustrialization of the United States, while crime rates have sky rocketed since the start of the 21st Century. Their real estate market has been sub-par compared to similar Rust Belt cities but is showing signs of increasing which will hopefully separate Detroit from its’ gloomy past.
This paper examines Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) ratings and their correlation to the stock price of 59 US financial firms. The ESG ratings used were from CSRHub and the company stock prices were from yahoo.finance.com taken on a monthly basis for four years spanning from August 2014 to July 2018. An empirical model based on panel data was used to determine whether each rating category had a positive or negative effect on a company’s stock price. The data was conclusive in showing that the environmental, governance, and subcategory of employees had a positive impact on company stock price, and the overall social rating and the subcategory community rating had a negative impact on company stock price.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are an emerging market in California and present an opportunity for emissions reductions in the transportation sector. In order for the EV market to grow, however, it is important to discern which factors affect the EV sales. Ding (2017) used demand theory to create a model to prove that if the cost of conventional vehicles are high, then the demand for energy efficient vehicles will increase. Ding (2017) examined EV sales across the entire United States, and found that retail gasoline prices and residential electricity prices may affect the sales of EVs. This study narrows the focus to California, assessing whether retail gasoline prices, residential electricity prices and a new independent variable, the percentage of renewable resources used in the electricity generation mix, affect plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) sales in the state. The results of the Robust Regression demonstrate that a decrease in gasoline price leads to an increase in both PHEV and BEV sales, while an increase in residential electricity price leads to an increase in the sales of these vehicles. Also, an increase in the percentage of renewable resources used in the electricity generation mix leads to an increase in PHEV and BEV sales. Certain results are unexpected, but make sense when EV market conditions specific to California are considered.
The Housing market in the United States is beginning to change due to millennial lifestyle, aging Gen Xer’s and inflation. It is important for a consumer to understand what makes a housing unit valuable. This study aims to compare 33 variables and the influence each of them have on house value. Using the 2013 data from the American Housing Survey, I found that location is the most influential variable in terms of prices. However, demographics play a larger role than anticipated but in a different context than location. These finding have an important role in determining house prices.
Numerous studies have analyzed the relationship between a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its corporate financial performance (CFP). This study observes the effects of CSR engagement pace on CFP, which is measured by both growth in pre-tax return on total earnings assets and Treynor risk-adjusted return. Using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) models, this study finds no significant relationship between CSR engagement pace and CFP in five of the six models. This result is similar to the majority of previous studies, where the results indicate no significant relationship exists between CSR and CFP.
The existing literature has not thoroughly investigated the relationship between higher education and economic development, especially in the context of Africa. This paper studies the effects of financial accessibility to higher education and its relationship with income inequality. I employ a three-stage conditional-mixed process model on 30 sub-Saharan African countries between 1980-2014. The results show that improving financial accessibility to higher education reduces income inequality through higher enrollment rates and greater productivity. The implications of these results are significant; focusing on creating an inclusive higher education system could greatly improve the income distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.
This paper examines whether success – defined as a win (3 points), tie (1 point) or loss (0 points) - is affected by a passing rating which is compiled through network theory analysis of passing in the sport of soccer. The proposed measurement builds a weighted network that accounts for the total number of teammates passed to, and the number of passes to those unique players. The model is run on 2012 Major League Soccer (MLS) season using Opta F24 event data. The Multinomial Probit Model suggests that the rating has no significant correlation with success.
This paper investigates the decision of junior golfers to pursue playing in the NCAA. Since standardized junior golf rankings across the world is fairly new, not much is researched on this relationship between these three levels of golf. This paper will focus on four main questions through the use of two probit models and two linear regression models. Does junior rank affect the decision to attend an NCAA school? Is success at the collegiate and junior levels a good indicator of PGA Tour playing probabilities? Does success at these levels indicate success on the PGA Tour? Finally, if junior ranking is any indication of your collegiate ranking? The study provides statistical support that playing collegiate golf increases the probability of playing on the PGA Tour, more success in the NCAA increases PGA Tour playing probabilities and college ranking influences success on the PGA tour.
Top players in the sports industry enjoy a fanatical following across the globe, making them ideal prospects for advertising campaigns in both print and electronic media forms. This paper uses decades of TV ratings, specifically from golfs FedEx Cup Era and television shows in general. Using weekly data from the Top 5 FedEx Cup ranked players presence in the Top 10 of golf’s most competitive tournaments, the presence of Tiger Woods, and the number 1 ranked television show of the year, this study utilizes a generalized least squares regression. This study hypothesizes that all variables used will positively affect the golf tournaments television rating. The results suggest that most variables do positively affect TV ratings, but based on the statistical evidence the hypothesis was not present.
This thesis focuses on the United States’ “National Innovation System” (NIS) and the role of private and public actors in this system. It is part of a broader literature seeking to identify the key catalysts of innovative activity, and hence economic growth. Although there are many elements that constitute the NIS, this study emphasizes one private institution, the venture capital industry, and one public institution, the Small Business Innovation Research program. The study uses state-level panel data aggregated over a fourteen-year period (2002-2015) and is operationalized by implementing an Ordinary Least Squares fixed-effects model that uses utility patent applications—a proxy for innovation—as the dependent variable. This thesis argues that public-private partnerships and symbiosis between the two sectors is critical to empowering technological innovation and sustainable long-run economic growth.
This paper builds on decades of hot hand effect research. Belief in persistent success or failure is common in sports despite a lack of statistical evidence supporting the phenomenon. Using weekly ranking data for 60 professional golfers around the world, this study deploys an ordinary least squares regression to analyze if persistent rank movement exists in the Official World Golf Rankings. This study hypothesizes that persistence does not exist outside of chance because significant evidence is needed to support the existence of streaks in golf ranks. Like previous studies, the results suggest that streaks do occur, but true statistical evidence to reject the hypothesis was not present.
The United States has seen a concerning escalation of opioid overdose death rates in the 21st century. With some states suffering more than others, it is crucial to determine state-level factors that contribute to the reduction of mortalities. Using a fixed-effects regression model, this thesis examines the determinants of opioid overdose death rates in the United States from 2013-2016 across all states and the District of Columbia. The major findings are that medical cannabis laws play a significant role in reducing deaths, while recreational cannabis laws and over-the-counter Naloxone do not. Additionally, the most effective form of PDMP is mandatory reporting of suspicious behavior.
The economic benefits that electrification provides have long been a driver for increasing rural electricity rates in India. However, the correlation between the two has not been fully investigated. This paper examines whether household electrification increases the propensity for movement out of poverty in rural India. I find that having access to electricity is significantly correlated to poverty escape, an effect that remains statistically significant across varying specifications of the poverty level. These results corroborate previous smaller studies that found electrification to improve incomes, and hold important policy implications for India.
The problem that is reviewed within this thesis is the exponential rate of growth in student loans that affect certain age groups ability to borrow in the future. The changes in regulations and disbursement amounts of unsubsidized Stafford government student loans is affecting home ownership rates through the lack of ability to take out a mortgage within certain age groups. The method which is used is the reviewing of various papers on similar educational topics, data used from government and public information sites and testing correlations through regression. Using data from the past 27 years to analyze national homeownership rates and specific areas of undergraduate grants and loans, this research done primarily explores and questions the correlation between homeownership rates and student loans. This paper depicts the exponential increase in unsubsidized Stafford student loans is having a negative effect on certain borrowers, therefore proving that the borrowing methods and lenders of current student loans are ineffective and inefficient in providing beneficial growth in human capital.
Pottery is an art medium with innumerable factors that contributes to the price of a piece. The artist is faced with the conundrum of creating quality work with designs or a larger quantity of work without designs. This paper expands our knowledge on ceramics and how the ornamentation of a mug will affect a potter’s wage. In order to carry out this study, I created an online survey that focused on the price of mugs with varying qualities and the time associated with their construction, while controlling for different demographics. This study finds that the addition of designs, on average, increase the price of a mug, however, it decrease a potter’s hourly wage. Potter’s who receive a formal education and informal education receive a higher hourly wage. Lastly full-time potters receive a higher hourly wage than part-time potters. Although these conclusions are derived from statistical significance they do not appear to be economically significant.
Using data from NHIS from the years 2017, 2015, and 2013, I use OLS regressions to investigate the relationship between activity frequency, duration, and type of exercise (moderate, vigorous, and strength activity). I find that when controlling for variables such as sex, age, smoking status, mental health status, and insurance coverage, activity level is not consistently correlated with annual healthcare cost. The effects of exercise are complex but have implications for individuals’ healthcare costs, government programs, and the insurance and fitness industries.
In the last few centuries, the world has seen unprecedented stratification between economic growth of countries. This study takes a quantitative approach to the role that nationalism and colonial history may play in the economic growth rates of countries. It explains the factors that are linked to nationalism and colonial background and explores the intersection between the two. The effect of these variables on economic growth is measured using cross-sectional data from 74 former European colonies that gained independence after the Second World War, or the year 1945. Using an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, it was found that region, form of government, and imports have significant effects on economic growth.