Abstract The following case study involved two students with disabilities, Cassie and Andi, who received small-group reading instruction through the Take Flight Reading Program©. The students were chosen because formal testing revealed both students have working memory impairments, language deficits, and are English Language Learners (ELLs). After two years of regular classroom and intervention instruction the students did not demonstrate growth in reading fluency commensurate with their peers. The purpose of examining this case study was to answer the following three questions: 1) Does dual language learning tax the cognitive capacity of children with disabilities? 2) Are there similarities and differences in reading acquisition and impairment between monolingual and bilingual students? 3) To what extent do working memory deficits impact the reading acquisition skills of bilingual students? Research indicates that children with disabilities are capable of learning a second language and that although there are a few differences in reading acquisition and impairment between monolingual and bilingual children there are many similarities. Studies also show that working memory is an integral component in reading development, and short-term memory and working memory deficits contribute to reading difficulties regardless of whether one is monolingual or bilingual.
This paper addresses intentionally teaching grit to high school students through the use of goal setting and other strategies. Based on the research by Angela Duckworth and Dr. Carol S. Dweck, Ph. D., teachers can implement multi-level goal setting and goal implementation scaffolding to encourage a growth mindset and develop grit in students.
Teachers can improve outcomes with ASD learners by considering each child's individual strengths, interests, capabilities, and special needs during planning and implementation. As with general education learners, the teacher that focuses on establishing and maintaining meaningful relationships and creating a nurturing classroom community will find the best from each child. Deficits in communications or social interactions can be developed using outdoor activities, and restricted or repetitive behaviors can be redirected using positive reinforcement.