The rise of the consumer economy in the United States during the 20th century brought about the rise of advertising. Advertising became such an integral part of our luxury economy that different methods and techniques had to be developed in order to attract a consumer base on a psychological level. Due to a multitude of factors, however, the popularity of psychological advertising did not increase as quickly as other scholars in the field might believe.
The historical roots of Islam in Granada provide crucial context for understanding the contemporary situation of Muslims living there today. Granada, in southern Spain, possesses immense symbolic power as the final Muslim state in Western Europe. Founded by Muslims a millennium ago, it drew Muslim refugees during the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula during the Late Middle Ages. After its fall in 1492, it stood as a reminder of Christianity’s supposed triumph over Islam. Only with the transition to liberal democracy in the 1970s has Muslim-founded Granada truly begun to represent the new, multiethnic reality gripping contemporary Spain. The city stands at a historical and political crossroads: founded by Islam, conquered by Christians, peopled by descendants of both and, in the present day, site of a mass migration of Muslims northward into Europe. This paper asserts that the population of Muslim converts in contemporary Granada embody and elucidate this cosmopolitan legacy, overcoming divisions between Islam and the West.
In 1990, Saddam Hussein invaded his tiny southern neighbor, Kuwait, and sparked the First Gulf War. The US responded with swift and decisive force—throwing Iraqi forces out of Kuwait in a matter of days. The episode is often remembered merely as a shining example of American military might, but the diplomatic history behind the First Gulf War reveals a much more nuanced story. This essay delves into first the American, then the Iraqi diplomatic perspective in the decade leading up to the First Gulf War, and explores the causes at the root of the conflict. These include failure of American diplomats to give Saddam Hussein agency, and Saddam’s unique political education, which led him to harbor a deep and unshakable mistrust the US. In the run up to the First Gulf War, both sides inadvertently exacerbated the tension between them, building on existing mistrust, and eventually resulting in outright war.